1954 年 25 巻 2 号 p. 101-109
Comparison process consisting of two sub-processes of the standard and the comparison stimuli, each of which plays a different function. The two stimuli of comparison process, however, can be replaced each for the other in the experiment, and the effects which will be obtained in the forms of PSE and SD of the experiment depend upon which of the stimuli plays the role of the standard stimulus. These effects are termed the N-effects.
After reviewing the experiments on the N-effects in the comparison of visual lengths conducted by Prafessors T. Yatabe, Y. Akishige and H. Nakamufa of the Kyushu University, the present writer's experiments dealt with the same effects in the comparison of lifted weights as analysed with respect to statement of judgment.
The findings were as follows :
1) In simultaneous comparison of two weights (placed side by side), obsgrvers showed an inclination to form their judgments more frequently with the object on the right side, but individual differences were considerable. (Table 1)
2) In successive comparison of two weights, observers' judgments lents were made by far the more frequently on the second stimulus. (Table 2)
3) In simultaneous comparison of two equal weights (100 grams), no difference was found in the number of judgments made on the left and the right stimuli. (Table3)
4) In successive comparison of two weights, even when the relative difference of weight composing a pair of stimuli varies, no change was recognized in the tendency that the observers prefer to form their judgments on the second stimulus. (Table 4)
5) Throughout the above-mentioned experiments, observers in stating their judgments preferred to say “heavier” rather than “lighter”. This tendency to use such category of judgment as “heaviness” instead of “lightness” is not only due to the time-error or space-error but also to the more basic and influential “set” in comparison. (Tables 1, 2, 3 and 4).
6) In simultaneous comparison by means of the method of constant stimuli, no significant difference was found in the PSE's and the SD's whether the judgment was asked on the constant, variable, the right or the left stimulus. (Table 6)
7) In successive comparison of two stimuli presented to adult observers in different places, a tendency was recognized that the stimulus on which their judgments were asked was apt to be overestimated. When the adult observers are asked to state their judgment on the second stimulus in reference to the first, the degree of the precision of their judgements was higher than otherwise. (Table 7) In case of children, however, no such tendency was found. (Table 8)
8) In successive comparison of stimuli presented in the same place by means of the revolving top-table, no difference was found in the PSE and the SD, irrespective of which stimulus the judgment was formed on. (Table 9)
Based on the above-mentioned results, the present writer has tried to point out that the main conditions which define the standard stimulus of the comparison process are the constant, the first, the left and the near stimuli, and that any replacement of the forms of judgment by the experimenter has little effect on the way how the subprocesses of the comparison processes are organized.