1986 年 57 巻 2 号 p. 68-74
While much leadership research assumes that leader behavior affects group performance, this paper argues for the reverse causality. Effects of leader saliency and group performance on followers' ratings on leader behavior (initiating structure and consideration) were examined in 242 male workers engaged in railway traffic. As a measure of leader saliency, Kerr and Jermier (1978)'s substitutes for leadership scale (reward, spatial contact, and guidance) were applied. Followers' ratings on initiating structure and consideration were significantly higher for those who evaluated leader saliency as high. Similarly, each leader behavior was rated higher by subjects with higher group performance. With the causal relations revealed by previous experimental studies, it was concluded that followers' perception of leadership behaviors might reflect the level of group performance and leader saliency rather than the leader's objective behavior itself. The implications of these findings for future research and leadership training were discussed.