1934 年 9 巻 1 号 p. 109-117
Here are reported some preliminary results of a research on a boy who has the socalled memory for absolute pitch. It seems to me that although some researches have been done on children who have this ability and they all contain valuable results, most of them are not systematic enough to give light on this phenomenon. 1 hope that this little article may be of some use in this problem.
My subject, whom I will designate H. K. according his initials, born 1924, is now a 2nd-class pupil at an elementary school of Tokyo. There are no sign of musical inheritance from his parents. But we can assume his circumstances were fairly musical, for his brothers and sisters loved music so much that at his home he had many chances to hear music from his babyhood.
On account of his caries he could not walk till the 3rd age. When he was in his bed, he could guess his brothers by the sound of footsteps. At his 5th and 6th age his sister learned singing at his home and he was fond of listening and imitating it by the side. His brother teached him the names of the tones of the scale when he was 7 and as soon as he learned them he could identify notes by their names.
An acoustical research on this subject had the following results.
(1) Identification of single noter on the piano.
Result will be found in the Table 1 in Japanese section. He got 14 errors among 88 notes of the piano, obtaining 84% right judgment, fairly good result at this age. These errors occur 10 in S. C. and C. octaves, 3 in 4 and 5 accented octaves and 1 in 3 accented octave. As to the magnitude these errors are distributed as follows, semi-tone 6, whole-tone 3, minor 3rd 2, 4th 2, augumented 4th 1; thus decreasing in number as the magnitude becomes large. These results agree other works. In the errors smaller than minor 3rd we find 5 overestimations and 6 underestimations. In these 14 errors 10 occured on accidentals 4 on naturals.
The time of identification was almost instantaneous, from 1 sec. to 2 sec., never longer than that. When the judgment was not right the time exceeded this limit, reaching even 3.6 sec.
(2) Similar experiments on a reed-organ, a xylophone and an oscillater had, on the Whole, similar results to the piano.
(3) Analysis of intervals on the piano.
We gave 12 intervals within a octave on high, low, and middle region of the piano. The result will be found in Table VI of Japanese section. The mode of the distribution of errors are similar to that of single notes. We find a slight tendency of errors to be frequent on larger intervals. The time needed for analysis was 1.0 to 3.4 sec., reaching even 4.6 sec. When the analysis was false; thus on the whole larger than that of single notes.
(4) Analysis of intervals on the reed-organ resulted similarly.
(5)To know the ability of producing the tones designated by names, we used a monocord and proceeded as follows. First he was told the name of tone to be adjusted by him. Then the experimenter sounded the monocord. If the sound was not right he demanded to move the bridge and the experimenter moved it at his will till he said that the sound was right. 12 tones from f to e was demanded. The results will be found in the Table XI of Japanese section. The largest range with which a tone was adjusted was 11v.d., the smallest 1.5v. d., always within a semitone. Thus we may call him “bipolar” according to Weinert.
(6) As to the way of judging of the man who has memory for absolute pitch, much has been told. According to our observations it seems highly unprobable that H. K. judged with aid of some indirect criteria, such as audition colorée, interval-hearing and kinaesthesis. What is the real psychological nature of his judgment, that I can not tell now; and it will be the problem of my future study.