2020 年 41 巻 5 号 p. 166-175
This paper presents the analysis of the energy, upward reserve, downward reserve, and load frequency control (LFC) regulation in future energy systems in Japan, through the simulation of the co-optimization of economic dispatch control (EDC) and LFC considering uncertainties of electricity load and photovoltaic output. The results show that, in the present Kyusyu situation, a lot of photovoltaic output is absorbed by pumping up the water and photovoltaic curtailment. Also, most of the upward and downward reserve are provided from LNG combined cycle. Finally, the overall system changes dramatically when photovoltaic output is largely different from its predicted value. Specifically, the shadow price of the LFC requirement has a large standard deviation compared to its mean value, which makes it difficult for companies to join the ancillary service market.