1989 年 2 巻 p. 11-22
It is the history of the famous champions or of the big match records in the bare-knuckle prize fighting that has been considered in the former studies of boxing history in the nineteenth century England. But, on the other hand, the style of glove-boxing had been formed in England since Broughton introduced 'mufflers' around the middle of eighteenth century. That was the beginning of 'sparring'. It was demonstrated for the upper class by ex-champions or ex-pugilists as a lesson to learn 'the noble art of self-defence'. And after 1820s public house, tavern and sporting house supplied the places for 'sparring', and it was also performed by students in some public schools and universities. The utilities and justices of boxing insisted through the 'sparring' were three following points. (1)The utility as a method of self-defence. (2)The utility as a healthy exercise. (3)The justice as one of the athletics to compete the arts of boxing, not to fight. Therefore the historical meanings of 'sparring' are not only to take boxing-gloves in advance, but also(1)to continue a justice of boxing for practical use till the beginning of this century, and(2)to introduce an insistence that boxing is a healthy exercise as a basis of the new justice of boxing, further(3)to take in advance an idea that was asserted to deny a factor of 'fighting' in the boxing match under the progress of modern boxing style.