2007 Volume 17 Issue 3 Pages 203-207
Objectives: There is a growing demand for the development of virtual reality surgical simulators. Due to the complex surgical anatomy of the skull base and midface such a simulator has very special requirements concerning accuracy of visualization, cutting process and haptic force feedback. Methods: The anatomical 3D-model of the VOXEL-MAN TempoSurg simulator was derived from high resolution CT-data of actual human temporal bones. Key point of this model is the high resolution of the haptic and the visual rendering. The model can be deformed using different cutting tools. Shutter glasses give the impression of a three-dimensional preparation . A corresponding navigation tool allows controlling the drilling process within the 3 planes. Results: Many of the most demanding challenges of a virtual surgical simulator (position of surgeon, choice of temporal bones, opportunity to work with patient cases, degrees-of-freedom, and working with alternative instruments) have already been accomplished. Conclusions: The VOXEL-MAN TempoSurg simulator allows unlimited, standardized and time-as well as cost-saving training for OR-readiness in temporal bone surgery . The training effect can be augmented using the DICOM CT-files of actual patient cases.