This study presents the method of active vibration damping in cutting using relative acceleration, which is intended for full-closed controlled ball-screw-driven stage. Disturbance against rigid body motion is canceled out by using multi-encoder-based disturbance observer. Disturbance/internal disturbance against relative motion is canceled out by using relative acceleration instead of relative velocity or displacement. The use of acceleration signal recovers phase lag and leads to suppress vibration in higher frequencies. In addition, it enhances low-frequency cutoff characteristics in extracting relative motion, which enables band-limited vibration control separating the rigid body and the relative motion. By introducing suitable phase lead filter which makes phase shift zero between load force and current response, vibration of the table can be effectively suppressed without significantly changing the resonance frequency. The results of end milling tests show that the vibration near the resonance frequency is suppressed by relative acceleration feedback.