1993 Volume 71 Issue 4 Pages 529-544
In order to investigate effects of physical processes of H2O on the general circulation of the atmosphere, a general circulation model which excluded all physical processes of H2O was constructed. A great difference of the general circulation between without all physical processes of H2O and with them is obtained. For the case that the surface albedo is assumed to be 0.1 everywhere, the global mean surface temperature without them is 279K, while the temperature with them is 289K. The pole-to-equator temperature difference near the ground surface without them is about l00K, while the difference with them is about 40K. And the vertical and meridional temperature profiles without them are also quite different from the profiles with them. The maximum zonally averaged zonal wind without them is located on 60-70°latitude, while the wind with them is located on 30-50°latitude. The horizontal width of the direct meridional circulation without them, which is well known as the Hadley circulation, is almost the same as that with them. However, the intensity of the direct circulation without them is much weaker than that with them. The activity of eddies, and the intensity and the horizontal width of the indirect meridional circulation without them are also quite different from those with them. The differences of heat balances between without them and with them at the ground surface and in the atmosphere are investigated and discussed in detail. Effects of the radiation process by H2O, and effects of evaporation, precipitation and the advection of water vapor on heat balances are discussed.