1998 Volume 76 Issue 6 Pages 1045-1063
The Asian summer monsoon circulation, especially its climatological seasonal change, was studied as the model response to the prescribed zonal mean field and the prescribed diabatic heat source from the observation. The obtained results are summarized as follows.
(1) During the Asian summer monsoon season, the prescribed deep heat sources in the southern part of Asia form the Tibetan High, the monsoon trough, the low-level circulation over South Asia, and furthermore, the downward motion in the western part of the Eurasian Continent. The heat sources near the surface over central Asia also induce downward motions aloft.
(2) In early summer (June), the deep heat sources in the southern part of Asia tend to form southwesterly low-level flows and upward motion southeast of Japan. Those are considered to be the background for the Baiu formation in East Asia as well as heat lows produced in the southern part of Asia. The mid-latitude heat sources associated with the Baiu precipitation produce a low-level jet south of that.
(3) Climatological seasonal change from early summer (June) to mid-summer (July) is characterized by an air temperature increase in the whole Northern Hemisphere and a northward shift of a weakened westerly jet. When in the model a zonal mean field in June is replaced by that in July, the major characteristics of the seasonal change are obtained qualitatively; low-level jets and upward motion areas in South Asia and East Asia shift from the ocean side of the coasts toward the land side. This change of vertical motion is consistent with the seasonal change of deep heat sources from June to July.
(4) The climatological seasonal change from mid-summer (July) to late summer (August) is characterized by enhanced convective activity in the extended area of the subtropical western Pacific. When deep heat sources in July are replaced by those in August over the western Pacific only, the major characteristics of the seasonal change over the Pacific and the Indian Ocean are obtained. The expansion of the Tibetan High at the upper-level and the Pacific High at low-level over Japan is also simulated by the seasonal change of the western Pacific heat sources only.
(5) The model simulation with the combination of the diabatic heat source for August and the zonal mean field for June is compared with the climatological August simulation. It is indicated that the zonal mean field delayed from its seasonal migration could be related to weak monsoon circulation and the associated precipitation anomalies in the mid-latitudes and the subtropics.