Background: Left ventricular remodeling (LVR) process is one of the important secondary sequele after acute myocardial infarction (AMI) . However, little is known about the relationship between LVR and angiotensin converting enzyme (ACE) gene polymorphism as well as endothelial nitric oxide synthase (ecNOS) gene polymorphism.
Methods: Coronary angiography and left ventriculography were performed within 24 hours and 30± 7 days after AMI onset. All consecutive 24 patients (57± 6 years) had acute anterior MI with one vessel disease of left anterior descending artery and successful revascularization therapy during acute phase. Patients were divided into three groups according to the change of end-diastolic volume index (EDVI)(Δ EDVI=EDVI 1 month-EDVI within 24 hrs) ; LVR (+)(Δ EDVI>7.0 ml/m2, n=5) , LVR (-)(Δ EDVI<-7.0 ml/m2, n=13) , and LVR (+/-)(-7.0<Δ EDVI<7.0 ml/m2, n=6) groups. The polymorphisms of ACE and ecNOS gene were determined with PCR method after an extraction of genomic DNA from peripheral leukocytes.
Results: There were no significant difference among three groups as to baseline characteristics, including coronary risk factors, medications, serum CPKmax and patency of infarct-related artery. The incidence of DD genotype of ACE gene is significantly higher in LVR (+) than in the other two groups (0.60; 0; 0, respectively, χ 2=13.150, p<0.01) . The incidence of D allele of ACE gene is also significantly higher in LVR (+) than in the other two groups (0.70; 0.17; 0.19, respectively, χ 2=10.221, p<0.01) . Δ EDVI of DD genotype was significantly greater than in the other two groups (DD genotype=30.1± 18.1; ID genotype=-13.0± 27.4; II genotype=-8.2± 11.5ml/m2, respectively, p<0.05) . There was no significant difference in ecNOS gene polymorphism among three groups. By stepwise regression analysis, the significant independent predictors of Δ EDVI were EDVI within 24 hrs and DD genotype (F=16.88 and 8.641, respectively, p=0.0024) .
Conclusion: These results showed that left ventricular dilatation is related to DD genotype of ACE gene after successful reperfusion therapy of anterior AMI. Thus, renin-angiotensin system may play an important role in left ventricular remodeling after AMI.