2013 Volume 59 Issue 6 Pages 576-583
This study was performed to: (1) assess the prevalence of dietary supplement and fortified food use, (2) examine the differences in vitamin E intake with and without dietary supplementation and/or fortified food use, and (3) determine whether some individuals consume vitamin E above the tolerable upper intake level (UL). Data were obtained from 64,624 individuals (age, ≥1 y; 47.4% males) who completed a 1-d household dietary assessment that was part of the National Health and Nutrition Survey conducted in Japan, 2003-2009. The survey also obtained information on the brand or generic name of each dietary supplement or fortified food reported, including their ingredients, through dietary assessment. The prevalence of a potential risk of excess was estimated by the proportion of persons above the age-/sex-specific ULs provided by the Dietary Reference Intakes for Japanese 2010. Supplement use was reported by 5.8% of men and 7.7% of women, whereas fortified food consumption was reported by only 2.9% of men and 3.6% of women. Use of dietary supplements was most common among older women, whereas use of fortified foods was most common among younger women. Both dietary supplement and fortified food use accounted for maximum vitamin E intake; however, the use of dietary supplements and fortified foods had little effect on the median and 95th percentile intake values. None of the subjects consumed nutrients above the UL. The collected data confirm that the use of both dietary supplements and fortified foods contributes a small amount to nutrient intake in Japanese subjects.