2020 Volume 66 Issue 1 Pages 60-67
A treatment for hyperphosphatemia would be expected to reduce mortality rates for CKD and dialysis patients. Although rodent studies have suggested sodium-dependent phosphate transporter type IIb (NaPi-IIb) as a potential target for hyperphosphatemia, NaPi-IIb selective inhibitors failed to achieve efficacy in human clinical trials. In this study, we analyzed phosphate metabolism in rats, dogs, and monkeys to confirm the species differences. Factors related to phosphate metabolism were measured and intestinal phosphate absorption rate was calculated from fecal excretion in each species. Phosphate uptake by intestinal brush border membrane vesicles (BBMV) and the mRNA expression of NaPi-IIb, PiT-1, and PiT-2 were analyzed. In addition, alkaline phosphatase (ALP) activity was evaluated. The intestinal phosphate absorption rate, including phosphate uptake by BBMV and NaPi-IIb expression, was the highest in dogs. Notably, urinary phosphate excretion was the lowest in monkeys, and their intestinal phosphate absorption rate was by far the lowest. Dogs and rats showed positive correlations between Vmax/Km of phosphate uptake in BBMV and NaPi-IIb expression. Although phosphate uptake was observed in the BBMV of monkeys, NaPi-IIb expression was not detected and ALP activity was low. This study revealed significant species differences in intestinal phosphate absorption. NaPi-IIb contributes to intestinal phosphate uptake in rats and dogs. However, in monkeys, phosphate is poorly absorbed due to the slight degradation of organic phosphate in the intestine.