2022 年 68 巻 4 号 p. 284-293
Intestinal-type alkaline phosphatase (IAP) is expressed at a high concentration in the brush border membrane of intestinal epithelial cells and is known to be a gut mucosal defense factor. In humans, a single gene (ALPI) for IAP has been isolated, and its transcription produces two kinds of alternatively spliced mRNAs (aAug10 and bAug10). Recently, we discovered that vitamin D up-regulated the expression of both types of human IAP alternative splicing variants in Caco-2 cells. However, the functional difference of protein encoded by the mRNA variants has remained elusive. In the present study, we aimed to provide further insight into the characterization and structure of IAP isoforms. To analyze the protein translated from the ALPI gene, we constructed two kinds of cDNA expression plasmids (aAug10 and bAug10), and the transfected cells were homogenized and assayed for alkaline phosphatase (ALP) activity. We also designed the homology-modeled 3D structures of the protein encoded by the mRNA variants (ALPI-aAug10 and ALPI-bAug10). The levels of ALP activity of COS-1 cells transfected with the aAug10 plasmid were increased significantly, while cells transfected with the bAug10 plasmid had undetectable ALP activity. The homology-modeled 3D structures revealed that the variant bAug10 lacks the central N-terminal α-helix and residue corresponding to Asp-42 of ALPI-aAug10 near the active site. This is the first report on the characterization and structure of alternatively spliced transcript variants of the human ALPI gene. Further studies on the regulation of aAug10 and/or bAug10 mRNA expression may identify novel physiological functions of IAP.