1986 年 29 巻 2 号 p. 31-45
The particle -apa in Hittite has so far been considered as a sentence particle denoting local relation (“Ortsbezug”). However, there is no positive evidence to attest this fact. It is very probable that -apa is an emphatic particle designating consecutive, additional or incidental nuance in the second sentence. Thus this word may be translated into English with terms like “so, so that, then or therefore”. Syntactic particles of other Anatolian languages also show a similar development, but obviously they imply their own peculiar innovations : C. Luw. pa-, -pa-; Pal. -(p)pa; H. Luw. -pa(-wa); Mil. (Lyc.) -be; Lyd. fa-. It is probable that Hitt. -apa and these particles have been derived from a common element *aba in Proto-Anatolian. Furthermore, this word will be analyzed into *a and *ba, which surely indicate an IE. deictic demonstrative pronoun *e/o- and an IE. assertive or emphatic adverbial form *bho respectively. Of course, the formation of *aba from *e/o-+*bho is to be considered as representing a peculiar innovation of the Anatolian branch in Indo-European.