1996 年 39 巻 1 号 p. 115-126
Abu Ja'far Muhammad ibn 'Ali ibn al-Husayn ibn Babawayh al-Qummi (d. 381/991), known as al-Shaykh al-Saduq, is one of the foremost doctors and traditionists among the Twelver Shi'is in the 10th century. He composed a book named the Kamal al-din wa-tamarn al-ni'mah for the vindication of the ghaybah (occultation) of the twelfth Imam. In this book, he claimed that the prophets before Muhammad had set precedents for the ghaybah and they had already undergone the same kind of situation as the twelfth Imam. By showing what had happened to each prophet in terms of the ghaybah through hadiths, he expanded the concept of ghaybah from what was limited to the twelfth Imam to what was applicable to all Hujaj Allah (pl. of Hujjat Allah, God's proof, i. e. prophets and Imams). This is a unique and new vindicative procedure for the ghaybah. In this paper, the author analyses this new ghaybah supporting theory by dividing al-Shaykh al-Saduq's argument into three steps: (1) presentation of some hadiths which imply the possibility of the prophets' entering ghaybah conditions; (2) some illustrations of the prophets' ghaybah; (3) justification of the twelfth Imam's ghaybah by the authoritative precedents of the prophets.