1998 年 41 巻 1 号 p. 95-109
Isma'ili movement rapidly extended all over the Islamic world in the 10th century. One of its primary factors was their messianic thought, which drove them to realize Qiyamah, that is, the end of the world and the realization of paradise. But Fatimid Imams and their empire failed in its realization, and the Fatimid state was transformed into the ordinary state which was occupied in the worldly domination with putting aside the original aim that they would radically change the order on the earth. Accordingly Fatimid rulers were obliged to modify both their eschatological doctrine which Isma'ilis had maintained before the establishment of the Fatimid state and their cosmological theory which had supported their eschatology so as to conform their old doctrine and justify their reality.
In this paper I will examine the transformation of Isma'ili eschatology in the Fatimid period by utilizing Rahat al-'aql and other texts written by Hamid al-Din al-Kirmani who made efforts on the side of the Fatimids in the 11th century and define his role and meaning. He defended the Fatimid state against the Duruz movement, which deified al-Hakim with stating that Muhammad's cycle had been finished. For this purpose he denied al-Hakim's deity and postponed the day of Qa'im's advent. But he emphasized the cosmological importance of Qiyamah and maintained that obedience to the Imam who gave guidance and instruction in each era was inevitable for the salvation of souls at the time of Qiyamah. Al-Kirmani justified the eschatological and cosmological importance of the obedience to Fatimid Imams at that time by putting off Qiyamah, while heightening the value of Qiydmah. He endeavored to change the Isma'ili organization to a millenary empire from a messianic movement.