2018 Volume 67 Issue 2 Pages 177-186
Industrially relevant systems for household and personal-care products often involve a large number of components. Such multiple component formulations are indispensable and effective for functionalization of the products, but may simultaneously provide more complex structural features compared to those in ideal systems comprising a smaller number of highly pure substances. Using cryogenic transmission electron microscopy (cryo-TEM), small angle X-ray scattering (SAXS), and electron spin resonance (ESR) spectroscopy, we have investigated effects of fragrance-incorporation into cationic vesicles on their bilayer structures and membrane-membrane interactions. Cationic vesicles were prepared from TEQ surfactant, whose major component was di(alkyl fatty ester) quaternary ammonium methosulfate, and fragrance components, l-menthol, linalool, and d-limonene, were infused into the vesicle membranes to model scent-releasing fabric softeners. The cryo-TEM images confirm formation of multilamellar vesicles (MLVs). Generalized indirect Fourier transformation (GIFT) analysis of the SAXS intensities based on the modified Caillé structure factor model reveals that incorporation of a more hydrophobic fragrance component leads to a more pronounced increase of the surface separation (water layer thickness). Furthermore, the fragrance-infused systems show longer-range order of the bilayer correlations and enhanced undulation fluctuation of the membranes than those in the TEQ alone system. The spin-label ESR results indicate different restricted molecular motions in the TEQ bilayers depending on the labeled position and their marked changes upon addition of the fragrance components, suggesting different mixing schemes and solubilization positions of the fragrance molecules in the TEQ bilayers. The present data have demonstrated how the infused fragrance molecules having different hydrophobicity and molecular architectures into the cationic vesicles affect the membrane structures and the intermembrane interactions, which may provide useful information for precisely controlling a fragrance-releasing property.