2020 年 69 巻 9 号 p. 973-984
China has taken olive cultivation as a significant part of its agricultural development. Longnan city of Gansu province was marked into the world olive distribution map by International Olive Oil Council in 1998. However, so far, little research has been done on the growth and development stages of Chinese olives. The objective of this study was to investigate the dynamics changes of several quality characteristics of olive oil at different sampling times. Olive fruit of ‘Chenggu-32’ grown in Longnan were harvested at twenty-four time periods and used for determination of phenotypic traits and oil quality characteristics: total polyphenols and flavonoids contents, as well as fatty acid composition by using Gas Chromatography-Mass Spectrometer (GC-MS) and analysed by using Principal Components Analysis (PCA). Towards maturation, fruit moisture content decreased while oil content increased. Levels of both total flavonoids and total polyphenols contents slightly decreased first then increased. The ratio of unsaturated to saturated fatty acids was close to three. The ratio of monounsaturated fatty acids (MUFA)/ polyunsaturated fatty acids (PUFA) was from 2.28 to 4.05. The oleic acid (C18:1)/linoleic acid (C18:2) ratio was varied between 5.23 and 10.67 according to different sampling dates. The olive oil had lower oleic acid (C18:1) levels, higher linoleic acid (C18:2), linolenic acid (C18:3), and palmitic acid (C16:0) levels compared to Codex values (2017) in some periods, which is the characteristics fatty acid composition of ‘Chenggu-32’ variety in Longnan, China.