The antibacterial activity of an extract and several fractions of Sophora flavescens (S. flavescens) root alone and in combination with antibiotics against oral bacteria was investigated by checkerboard assay and time-kill assay. The minimum inhibitory concentration/minimum bactericidal concentration (MIC/MBC) values for all examined bacteria were 0.313-2.5/0.625-2.5 μg/mL for the n-BuOH fraction, 0.625-5/1.25-10 μg/mL for the EtOAc fraction, 0.25-8/0.25-16 μg/mL for ampicillin, 0.5-256/1-512 μg/mL for gentamicin, 0.008-32/0.016-64 μg/mL for erythromycin, and 0.25-64/0.5-128 μg/mL for vancomycin. The n-butanol (n-BuOH) and ethyl acetate (EtOAc) fractions exhibited stronger antibacterial activity against oral bacteria than other fractions and extracts. The MICs and MBCs were reduced to between one half and one quarter when the n-BuOH and EtOAc fractions were combined with antibiotics. After 24 h of incubation, combination of 1/2 MIC of the n-BuOH fraction with antibiotics increased the degree of bactericidal activity. The present results suggest that n-BuOH and EtOAc extracts of S. flavescens root might be applicable as new natural antimicrobial agents against oral pathogens.
2017 by Nihon University School of Dentistry