Volume 59 (2017) Issue 4 Pages 611-620
The transplantation of dedifferentiated fat (DFAT) cells in combination with poly(d,l-lactic-co-glycolic acid) (PLGA) scaffolds has previously been proven as an effective approach in promoting periodontal tissue regeneration in a rat fenestration defect model. The aim of this study was to assess the regenerative potential of DFAT cells in a rat model of three-wall periodontal bone defect. Three-wall bone defects were created bilaterally on the mesial side of rat maxillary first molars and were either left untreated or treated by implantation of PLGA scaffolds with DFAT cells or PLGA alone. Four weeks after surgery, the tissues were processed for micro-computed tomography (micro-CT) and histomorphometric examination. Micro-CT revealed that the PLGA/DFAT group had significantly higher rates of bone regeneration than the other groups, while histomorphometric analysis showed that the PLGA/DFAT group had significantly higher densities of collagen fiber bundles in acellular and cellular cementum than the PLGA group. Moreover, the results indicate that the placement of the PLGA scaffold prevented the downgrowth of the junctional epithelium. These findings suggest that DFAT cells contribute to tissue regeneration in three-wall periodontal defects, while PLGA provides space necessary for periodontal tissue restoration.