2019 Volume 61 Issue 1 Pages 156-163
This was a cross-sectional study with 550 students aged 17-19 years old. Gingival biotype (GB) was classified as thin, thick, and mixed based on visual inspection. Biotypes were associated with anatomical parameters from the anterior teeth, including probing depth, keratinized gingiva (KG), and gingival attachment (GA). Upper lip distance, facial thirds, tooth shape, gingival recessions, and gummy smile (GS) were also measured. Other variables included sex, age, dietary intake, and oral hygiene habits. Prevalence of thin, thick, and mixed biotypes was 68.4%, 19%, and 12.5%, respectively. Recessions occurred most often in those with thin biotypes. GS was more often seen in men with thin biotypes and in women with thick biotypes. There was a relationship between thin biotypes and oval teeth, and between thick biotypes and square teeth. The lower facial third was larger in thin biotypes. Thin biotypes were also related to larger canines, larger lateral and central incisors, and less KG and GA. Conversely, thick biotypes were associated with shorter teeth and with more KG and GA. Dietary intake and dental hygienic were not significantly associated with GB. Morphologic and phenotypic characterization of GBs can be relevant when planning and performing common dental procedures (e.g., prosthetics, implants, and orthodontics).