2016 Volume 107 Issue 3 Pages 162-169
(Purpose) We investigated the outcome of external-beam radiotherapy (EBRT) with neoadjuvant androgen deprivation therapy (NeoADT) for high-risk prostate cancer defined by National Comprehensive Cancer Network (NCCN) guideline.
(Patients and method) From 2002 to 2013, 70 patients with high-risk prostate cancer (PSA ≥20 ng/ml or clinical T stage ≥T3a, Gleason score ≥8) were treated with NeoADT and EBRT. EBRT consisted of three-dimensional conformal or intensity modulated radiotherapy with or without whole-pelvic radiation. Biochemical failure was defined according to the Phoenix definition. Biochemical progression-free survival (bPFS) and overall survival (OS) were calculated by Kaplan-Meier method, and prognostic factors for bPFS were analyzed by using the Cox proportional hazard model.
(Result) The median age and initial prostate-specific antigen (PSA) level were 72 years old and 25.2 ng/ml, respectively. 43 patients had PSA level ≥20 ng/ml, 51 patients had clinical stage ≥T3a, 27 patients had Gleason score ≥8. The number of risk factors patients possessed was 1 (RiskN-1) in 31 patients, 2 (RiskN-2) in 27 patients and 3 (RiskN-3) in 12 patients. Median EBRT dose and duration of Neo ADT were 74 Gy and13.0 months, respectively. Whole-pelvic radiation was administered in 7 patients. After median follow-up of 4.8 years, biochemical and clinical failure occurred in 23 and 2 patients, respectively. No patients died of cancer. Five-year/8-year bPFS and OS were 63%/54% and 100%/91%, respectively. In multivariate analysis, three high-risk factor of NCCN guideline (PSA, clinical stage, Gleason score) did not predict outcome after EBRT independently, but RiskN (-1 vs -2, 3, HR 35.35, 95%CI 2.51-498.05, p<0.01) and pre-EBRT PSA (continuous, hazard ratio 1.31, 95%CI 1.01-1.71, p<0.05) were the significant predictors of bPFS. Five-year/8-year bPFS in RiskN-1 group and RiskN-2 or -3 group were 89%/79% and 47%/39%, respectively. Grade 3/4 adverse events (CTCAE ver4.0-JCOG) occurred in 2 patients.
(Conclusion) Median dose of 74 Gy EBRT with intermediate-term NeoADT was safe and beneficial for high-risk prostate cancer. The number of risk factors and pre-EBRT PSA level were the independent prognostic factors for biochemical progression-free survival.