2017 Volume 108 Issue 4 Pages 188-193
(Background) Multiple renal angiomyolipoma (AML) may develop concurrently with tuberous sclerosis complex (TSC) and lung lymphangioleiomyomatosis (LAM). In recent years, an increase in subjects undergoing chest computed tomography examinations, including medical examinations, has been accompanied by an increase in LAM cases that are diagnosed while still asymptomatic. Surgical treatment may also be performed for renal AML to prevent bleeding. We clarified the clinical features of AML that is complicated by LAM, and discussed the significance of screening for LAM.
(Methods) Between January 1, 2006 and April 30, 2014 two groups, comprising 7 patients with LAM (LAM-AML group) and another 26 patients without LAM (sporadic AML group), were compared with regard to findings for renal AML such as imaging examinations, pathological features, and treatment course. Screening for LAM was chest CT scanning.
(Results) In the LAM-AML group, there were younger and more female cases and tumors tended to be multiple, large and bilateral. 85.7% of cases underwent surgery. On the other hand, in the sporadic group 73.1% of cases were followed up without treatment. There was no preoperative lung screening except the one TSC case and all 5 LAM cases were diagnosed postoperatively. One LAM patient was symptomatic and eventually required lung transplantation, while all other LAM cases were handled by monitoring the course, without treatment.
(Conclusion) Many cases of asymptomatic LAM are untreated. However, the poor prognosis, risk of a need for general anesthesia, and potential for renal sparing by selection of pharmacotherapy must be taken into account. In that light-especially in the case of young women-patients with multiple renal AML should undergo preoperative screening for LAM.