1991 Volume 82 Issue 3 Pages 361-371
Immunotherapy gained popularity as a treatment modality for malignant diseases in the 1960s. A number of trials, using tumor vaccines, immunopotentiators, interferons, cytokines and others, demonstrated antitumor effects in several urological malignancies, and, to date, immunotherapy plays a major role in treatment of advanced renal cell carcinoma and superficial bladder carcinoma. Interferon or interleukin-2, which became available for large scale clinical trial with the development of bioengineering, however, were shown to be not effective as initially expected, by single agent. Rational design of new strategies with mutiple agents in combination based on basic and clinical research, should provide progress in treatment of urological malignancies.