The Japanese Journal of Urology
Online ISSN : 1884-7110
Print ISSN : 0021-5287
ISSN-L : 0021-5287
Kenji ShimadaShozou HosokawaFumi MatsumotoEiji KonyaSeiji Matsumoto
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1996 Volume 87 Issue 6 Pages 909-914


(Background) Due to the advancement of prenatal and postnatal ultrasound screening in addition to better understanding by pediatricians, more infants have been detected to have vesicoureteal reflux. There are still debates, however, about their management whether to take conservative or surgical treatment.
(Methods) We analysed clinical courses of 51 children with primary reflux undergoing antireflux surgery when they were under 1 year.
(Results) A total of 41 infants (80%) presented with febrile urinary tract infections. The first UTI was seen as early as 7th day after birth, with the average age of 2 months. Seven infants had hydronephrosis detected by prenatal ultrasound, and 2 were identified by neonatal screening ultrasonography. Sixty-eight of 86 reflux ureters (79%) showed high grade reflux (grade IV-V). All the other 18 ureters with mild to moderate grade of reflux except one accompanied with contralateral high grade reflux. One ureter with grade II reflux was associated with contralateral obstructed meganreter. Renal parenchymal abnormalities, either with scarring and/or small kidney, were identified in 64 kidneys (74%) at or before the reimplantation.
The operation was done as early as 1 month-old with the average age of 5.6 months. Among the children, 24 (47%) underwent anti-reflux surgery before 6 month-old. Smallest infant weighted 2500gr at the time of operation. Reimplantation was done by the Cohen transverse advancement technique in 75 ureters (87%). The modified Politano-Leadbetter method in 6 with Hutche's diverticulum, and the Glenn-anderson advancement method in 5 with moderate to mild reflux. Two dilated ureters were treated with folding of the intravesical segment. Follow-up voiding cystourethrogram of 49 children at 6 months revealed no evidences of persistent reflux. There were no patients with obstruction of reimplantation except one with slight upper-tract dilatation. One infant revealed new low grade contralateral reflux, and he is being observed. Two children presented pyelonephritis after the operation.
(Conclusion) Our success rate of 100% in antireflux surgery enables us to continue our policy to perform early operative interventions in infants with high grade reflux. In addition to the meticulous and careful technique, the conditions for successful results include;
1) A through checkup of the lowre tracts by VCG and endoscopy.
2) Find the better operative instruments for the small bladder.
3) Do not hesitate to perform the ureteral tapering.
4) Make good use of operative loupe.

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