The Journal of Poultry Science
Online ISSN : 1349-0486
Print ISSN : 1346-7395
ISSN-L : 1346-7395
Breeding and Genetics
Complete Mitochondrial Genome Analysis Clarifies the Enigmatic Origin of Haplogroup D in Japanese Native Chickens
Takahiro YonezawaMasahide NishiboriYoshio YamamotoTakeshi SasakiKohei KudoHiroshi OgawaHideki EndoFumihito Akishinonomiya
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Supplementary material

2022 Volume 59 Issue 4 Pages 316-322


Japanese native chickens (JNCs) comprise approximately 50 breeds, making Japan a diversity hotspot for native chicken breeds. JNCs were established through the repeated introduction of chickens from foreign countries. Jidori, which is the generic name of JNC breeds whose ancestral morphology resembles that of their wild progenitor (red junglefowls), is generally thought to have propagated from north East Asia (Korea and north China) to ancient Japan. However, mitochondrial haplogroup D, which is abundant in Island Southeast Asia (ISEA) as well as the Pacific but relatively rare in other regions, can be observed in some Jidori breeds (e.g., Tosa-Jidori, Tokuji-Jidori) with high frequency, leading to speculation that chickens from ISEA or the Pacific also contributed genetically to JNCs. To test this hypothesis, we sequenced the mitochondrial genomes of Jidori breeds and conducted phylogeographic analysis. Our results indicate that the JNC Haplogroup D belongs to Sub-haplogroup D2, which is currently only observed in Xinjiang, northwest China, and not to Sub-haplogroup D1, which is widely distributed in the ISEA-Pacific region. The other mitochondrial haplogroups of Jidori examined in this study also showed affinity to those of chickens native to north East Asia. Therefore, our findings support the north East Asian origin hypothesis for Jidori.

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