Published: March 15, 2004Received: -Available on J-STAGE: June 28, 2010Accepted: -
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Date of correction: June 28, 2010Reason for correction: -Correction: CITATIONDetails: Right : 3 For more details on the functions of licensed commercial associations,see Tetsuji Okazaki,Edo no shijo keizai-rekishi seido bunseki kara mita kabu nakama[The market economy in the Edo period:kabu nakama as seen from an analysis of historical institutions](Tokyo:Kodansha,1999). 5 My thoughts on economic institutions have been inspired by Douglass C.North,Institutions,Institutional Change and Economic Performance(Cambridge:Cambridge University Press,1990). 6 In this sense the ideas of Karl Polanyi,who has relativized market institutions,are important.See his Dahomey and the Slave Trade:An Analysis of an Archaic Economy(Seattle,Wash.,and London:University of Washington Press,1966). 7 The factual sections that follow are based on my book Kinsei-Kindai Nihon no shijo kozo:"Matsumae nishin"hiryo torihiki no kenkyu[Market structure in early-modern and modern Japan:A study of"Matsumae herring"fertilizer transactions](Tokyo:University of Tokyo Press,1998).A review of this book by Teiichiro Fujita appeared in Japanese Yearbook on Business History17(2000),pp.137-43.In early-modern times,Hokkaido was referred to as Ezogashima("Island of the Ezo"),but for the sake of uniformity I refer to it by the name it has been known by since modern times:Hokkaido. 8 For a longer treatment of the management practices of shipowner merchants,see the article by Masahiro Uemura,"Marine Transport Management in Early-Modern Japan,"Japanese Yearbook on Business History15(1998),pp.119-44. 9 T he"vertical integration"spoken of here refers to the entry of a business entity that is engaged principally in commercial operations into the phases of production and transportation;its meaning thus differs from the sense in which Alfred D.Chandler,Jr.uses it to mean the entry of a giant manufacturing enterprise into a distribution process.See A.D. Chandler,Jr.,The Visible Hand:The Managerial Revolution in American Business(Cambridge,Mass.:The Belknap Press of Harvard University Press,1977).