2015 Volume 61 Issue 4 Pages 341-350
Glucose has been recognized as an energy source for a long time, but it has recently been suggested that the hexosamine biosynthesis pathway (HBP) and downstream protein O-GlcNAcylation have important functions in mouse preimplantation development. Thus, whether or not O-GlcNAcylation was present and what functions O-GlcNAcylation has in pig preimplantation development were investigated in the present study. The expressions of mRNA of glutaminefructose-6-phosphate aminotransferase (Gfpt), O-GlcNAc transferase (Ogt) and O-GlcNAcase (Oga), which are involved in the HBP and O-GlcNAc cycling, were examined in pig parthenogenetic diploids at each preimplantation developmental stage. Gfpt and Ogt were detected in diploids at all stages. Though Oga was detected at all stages except the 4-cell stage, OGA proteins were detected in diploids from the 2-cell to blastocyst stage. Furthermore, O-GlcNAcylated proteins in MII oocytes and diploids were also detected by immunofluorescence at every stage. Inhibition of OGT by 4.0 mM BADGP did not affect development up to the blastocyst stage, while inhibition of OGA by 300 µM PUGNAc decreased the proportion of diploids beyond the 4-cell stage. Four-cell diploids cultured with PUGNAc until 48 h developed to the blastocyst stage after culture in a PUGNAc-free medium until 144 h after electrostimulation. RNA polymerase II (Pol II) phosphorylation, which indicates the onset of mRNA transcription, was detected in nuclei of diploids in the control group at 48 h but not in the PUGNAc-treated group. These results indicate that HBP and O-GlcNAcylation have important functions in pig preimplantation development and that inhibition of OGA is fatal for development. It is also suggested that OGA inhibition disrupts normal Pol II regulation and may cause a zygotic gene activation error.