Volume 61 (2015) Issue 6 Pages 503-510
In mouse somatic cell nuclear transfer (SCNT), polyvinylpyrrolidone (PVP) is typically included in the nuclear donor injection medium. However, the cytotoxicity of PVP, which is injected into the cytoplasm of oocytes, has recently become a cause of concern. In the present study, we determined whether bovine serum albumin deionized with an ion-exchange resin treatment (d-BSA) was applicable to the nuclear donor injection medium in SCNT as an alternative to PVP. The results obtained showed that d-BSA introduced into the cytoplasm of an enucleated oocyte together with a donor nucleus significantly enhanced the rate of in vitro development of cloned embryos to the blastocyst stage compared with that of a conventional nuclear injection with PVP in SCNT. We also defined the enhancing effects of d-BSA on the blastocyst formation rate when d-BSA was injected into the cytoplasm of oocytes reconstructed using the fusion method with a hemagglutinating virus of Japan envelope before oocyte activation. Furthermore, immunofluorescence experiments revealed that the injected d-BSA increased the acetylation levels of histone H3 lysine 9 and histone H4 lysine 12 in cloned pronuclear (PN) and 2-cell embryos. The injection of d-BSA before oocyte activation also increased the production of cloned mouse offspring. These results suggested that intracytoplasmic injection of d-BSA into SCNT oocytes before oocyte activation was beneficial for enhancing the in vitro and in vivo development of mouse cloned embryos through epigenetic modifications to nuclear reprogramming.