2001 年 10 巻 p. 59-71
Generally it is believed that the American Herbartianism disappeared in 1902, when N.S.S.S.E. (N.S.S.E.) started. But they produced the 'Project Method' in 1920's. What does it mean? They suggested some effective plans for actual class instructions even in 20th century. I am sure that we need to change our understanding of the span and epoch divisions of the American Herbartian Movement. Though many of the previous researchers believed the span was from 1887 to 1902, it should be thought to be from 1887 to 1929, when C.A.McMurry died and the books and articles by Herbartians disappeared completely. Now the intention of this study is to make clear the process that they imported and applied formal steps to the recitation system, which had been very popular in America in the second half of 19th century. There are some difference between the formal steps of America and those of Germany. Those of America contained not only continuous processes of thought but also practical applications to real life and the like. These ideas different from those of German systems had definite influence upon the essence of 'Project Method' in spite of criticism to formal steps themselves. The formal steps produced by C.A.McMurry appears to resemble those by W.Rein in Germany. C.A.McMurry, who was the most famous Herbatian in U.S.A., explained the formal steps based on the idea of 'apperception', which, he believed, means psychologically assimilation or association and develops the idea of 'unknown to known'. It is generally said that formal steps were the method which was very artificial and literally formal because they were introduced to meet the overcrowded curriculum. However, this conception is wrong, for they tried to overcome the overcrowded curriculum problem by proposing their curriculum theory such as concentration and culture epoch theory and they introduced formal steps to meet the demand of the pupils' psychological development of thought. The teaching method such as formal steps preceded the curriculum theory which was their outstanding trait. This means that their intention was to overcome the previous method of instruction, which paid no attention to the natural order of child's thought process.