Equilibrium Research
Online ISSN : 1882-577X
Print ISSN : 0385-5716
ISSN-L : 0385-5716
第79回日本めまい平衡医学会ミニシンポジウム2「姿勢・歩行・転倒について学ぶ」
動物モデルからみた転倒の神経機構
柳原 大
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ジャーナル フリー

2022 年 81 巻 1 号 p. 22-27

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 In the elderly, falls can result in serious injuries, such as bone fracture, and also in loss of mobility and independence. Thus, with the aging of society, falls incur increasing costs impose a great cost burden on the public health system. In this short review, we introduce two related cases in experimental studies that are strongly correlated with falls: the first is the poorness of anticipatory postural adjustments (APAs) and the other is deficits of working memory in gait. There are two major aspects to postural control: compensatory postural reaction via sensory feedback mechanisms, and APAs via feed-forward mechanisms. The cerebellum has been suggested as being the brain region principally responsible for these postural control mechanisms. The first part of this review focuses on the deficiencies of APAs in a mouse model of spinocerebellar ataxia type 3 (SCA3), also known as Machado-Joseph disease (MJD). Memory function deficits, often encountered in patients with Alzheimer's disease (AD), are believed as being among the important causes of increased tripping in elderly patients. The second part of this review focuses on the impairments of memory-guided limb movements while stepping over an obstacle in triple-transgenic (3 xTg) mice generated as a model of AD.

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