Japanese Journal of Health and Human Ecology
Online ISSN : 1882-868X
Print ISSN : 0368-9395
ISSN-L : 0368-9395
Anthropometric Study of Mixed-Blooded Children between Japanese and White or Negro Races.
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1953 Volume 19 Issue 5-6 Pages 93-106,A7


Studies have been made since 1948 with regard to 201 white American-Japanese and 66 Negro-Japanese hybrids who were found in the vicinity of Tokyo and in the Prefecture of Kanagawa. They were all under 6 years of age, and thier mothers were invariably Japanese.
1) Blood type. Of the white American-Japanese hybrids, those having A type blood represent a high percentage (49.5 percent), inasmuch as that blood type accounts for a large majority of both the whites and the Japanese. The figures for B and O types respectively stand about half-way between the corresponding figures for the two races. The average racial index of blood of the white American-Japanese hibrids is 2.93, showing a European type, while the Japanese index stands at 1.53 and always retains the Asian type. a The racial serologic point of the hybrids, as Figure No. 1. shows, stands at about the middle between the two races, though slightly trending to the left -side. (Table 1)
2) Type of finger marks. The Japanese pattern is characterized by a small percentage of arches (1.8 percent) and a large percentage of loops (48 percent). Hybrids show a considerably high percentage of arches (4.9 per cent), which approaches to the figure for the white race (5.2 percent). Similar influence of the when type is also perceived. Likewise the racial pattern index (W/R+U) of the hybrids comes in the neighborhood of the average for the two races, i. e. 77.3, with the Japanese index standing at 85 and the index for the white at 51. As regards proportion of ulnar loops and whorl, the larger per cent of the native Japanese belongs to 5W and a smaller per cent to 5U. These ratio is reversed in the case of Europeans. The hybrids appear to possess mixed traits of both races. The U2W3 accounts for the highest percentage. (Fig. 2) (Table 2, 3)
3) Mongolian spot. The percentage of revelition, in the case of hybrids, is one-third of the figure for native Japanese. In the first year after birth, the spot appears highest in 45 per cent of hybrid, as against 99.5 per cent of the native Japanese babies. More notable is the fact that the spot in the case of hybrid babies is of lighter color, smaller in size and, as shown in Tables No. 3, 4, Fig. 3, disappears sooner, generally by the age of 4.
4) Color of skin. By comparison with the Hintze's Color Table, we have ascertained that, on the one hand, the skin of American-Japanese hybrids is 13 per cent whiter than that of pure Japanese, but is 2.4 per cent less white than that of the white race, and, on the other, it is 16 per cent less dark than that of pure Japanese, but is 4 per cent darker than that of the white race. Namely in color, it is very near to that of white and is almost devoid of the characteristic yellowish shade. As for Negro-Japanese hybrids, they have a skin intermediate in color between that of the Japanese native and the Negro: (Table 7).
5) Color and form of hair. About half (52.2 percent) of American-Japanese hybrids have black hair, and 11 per cent hair of lighter color, mostly brunette rather than blond of the white race. The hair of Negro-Japanese hybrids is mostly black, (86 percent) but it is sometimes blond (6.2 percent). (Table 7)
The hair of 60 per cent of American-Japanese hybrids is straight and that of 14 per cent slightly curled. As a whole, their hair is more wavy in form than it is intermediate between the hair forms of the two races, while the Japanese have straight hair with some exception. Of the Negro-Japanese hybrids, 15.8 per cent have straight hair and 38 per cent slightly curled hair form, showing a marked increase in the Japanese form as the result of this race mixture. (Table 8)

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