1983 Volume 49 Issue 4 Pages 173-198
With the intention of making a comparative study of generation life tables for Japan and England-Wales, the writer constructed two life tables from 1908 birth cohorts, the earliest cohorts with adequate data for comparison. In addition, the writer compared generation life tables for 1908 with current life tables, with the 3rd life table for Japan (1909-13), and English Life Table No. 7 (1901-10), and studied the relationships between them. The results were as follows: 1. Comparison of the two generation life tables for persons born in 1908 in Japan and England-Wales showed that conditions for Japanese men had been generally worse than conditions for English men. This was especially obvious for the generation under 40 years of age. On the contrary, for the generation over 40 years of age, biological differences between males and females were more significant than social conditions for each nation. Moreover, for ages over 100, the mutual relationship between qx and ex for males versus for females, as compared with qx and ex for the population under 100 years of age, was reversed. In other words, the suggestion is that the survival conditions for females, compared with those for males, seemed to be growing worse. Further study in the future: is required. In addition, the half life of lx was 53 years of age for males and 60 years of age for females in Japan, and 68 for males and 76 for females in England-Wales. The half life for Japan was 15-16 years shorter than for England-Wales. And the expectation of life at 0 years of age, e0, was 45.82 for males, and 48.74 for females in Japan, and 55.48 for males, and 61.69 for females in England-Wales. Comparing Japan with England-Wales, e0 was 9.66 years shorter for males, and 12.95 years shorter for females in Japan. On the other hand, life expectancy was greatest at 3 years of age for both sexes in Japan, and at 2 years of age for both sexes in England-Wales. (See Table 14, Fig, 14) 2. Comparing generation life tables with current life tables in Japan and England-Wales, nqx and ndx of the generation life tables were lower and less than those of the current life tables. On the contrary, lx and ex of the former were for the most part higher and longer than those of the latter. The values of each function of the generation life tables of both countries were more advanced than those of the current life tables on a scale of progressive civilization. In addition, it was reaffirmed that generation life tables reflect death-survival conditions more accurately than current life tables. (See Fig. 5?`12) 3. Comparing life expectancy at O years of age in Japan and abroad, by way of a comparison between a generation life table and a current life table, e was, for the most part, a few years longer according to the generation life table. The numerical difference was greater in foreign countries than in Japan, and was greater for females than for males. (See Table 5) 4. According to the generation life table for the 1908 cohort, e was 7-8 years longer at half life for females and 6 years longer at quarter life for females than for males . Life expectancy at 0 years of age was 2.9 years longer for females than for males in Japan, and was 6.2 years longer in England-Wales. From these statistics, we concluded that survival conditions in both countries were superior for females as compared to males. (See Fig. 3 and 4, Table 5) 5. In conclusion, we considered the utility of generation life tables as compared to current life tables, and suggested topics for further consideration.