1995 Volume 61 Issue 5 Pages 261-275
Jakarta, the capital of the Republic of Indonesia, is inhabited by 8.25 million people according to its 1990 census. In an area of 661 km2, this results in a population density of 10, 750 per km2. The annual population growth rate of Jakarta during the early 1980s was 2.41%, though a the total population growth rate of Indonesia was 1.97%. The annual growth rate of Jakarta accelerated to between 2.8-2.9% during the 1985 to 1990 period. Urban development has been expanding rapidly from Jakarta into the surrounding areas of Bekasi, Bogor and Tangerang. Rapid urbanization and motorization have progressed in the past 15 years in Jakarta. Construction activities in the areas of high-rise buildings for housing and business, roadways and rail systems have increased. The total number of motor vehicles registered in Jakarta increased from 1.1 million in 1982 to 1.9 million in 1992 (Jakarta 1993), thus indicating an annual rate of increase of 5.6%. Road length grew at 4% annually. The high total suspended particulates (TSP) in Jakarta results from the burning of solid wastes in homes and industry, exhaust from automobiles, buses, tricycles and from construction activities. Emissioninspection programs for commercial automobiles and buses were instituted by the government in 1990. Lead pollution by automobiles has been heavy because the gasoline available in Indonesia includes tetraethyl-lead (TEL) as an additive. Significant biochemical levels of lead have been found in tricycle taxi drivers by some of the authors (Tri-Tugaswati A et al., 1987) . The Government of Indonesia ordered a decrease in the addition of TEL by 40-50% in 1990. The actual effectiveness of this reduction is not yet known. The State Minister of Population and Environment gave directives to the regional authorities specifying the level of pollutants in the air, ground water and sea water. The decree from governor of DKI Jakarta (Decree Number 1222/1990) specifies two levels for the dominant pollutants emitted by motor vehicles in DKI Jakarta, i.e. the target level and permitted level. The major pollutants addressed in this decree are CO, 03, N0, HC and the emissions from diesel engines and two stroke engines. The decree stated that all types of motor vehicles operated in Jakarta, including private passenger cars, motorcycles and commercial trucks, are subject to emission inspections which are to be conducted under the supervison ofDLLAJR DKI Jakarta. Motor vehicles passing the inspection receive a certificate valid for six months. One year is the transition period. The governor decree is applicable only for the vehicles which are subject to safety test only. After this first three year period, all motor vehicles in Jakarta are required to have emission inspections. The objective of this research concerning Jakarta is to show: (1) the present status and characteristics of automotive air pollution in Jakarta, with special emphasis on particulate, lead, and nitrogen dioxide; (2) the metallic content in TSP in Jakarta compared to that of other cities and the effect of lead reduction program; (3) differences of areal and daily change of NO2 in Jakarta, particularly the decrease on Sunday and the Idul Fitri day; and (4) the relationship between pollution and traffic volume in 1985 and 1992/93. Finally we will make some recommendations to improve air quality.