2018 Volume 58 Issue 1 Pages 27-31
Composite lymphoma is defined as the co-occurrence of two types of lymphoma, comprising 1-4% of lymphomas, and the association of B-cell-type chronic lymphocytic leukemia (B-CLL)/small lymphocytic lymphoma and peripheral T-cell lymphoma (PTCL) is rare. Here, we report a case (77-year-old woman) of advanced B-CLL complicated by newly appearing PTCL. Two years after the onset of B-CLL, CLL cells acquired CD38 antigen expression and the disease entity became CLL/prolymphocytic leukemia. Trisomy 12 and t(14;18) karyotypes were observed. Five years after the onset of B-CLL, large abnormal cells with convoluted nuclei appeared in the peripheral blood and rapidly increased in number. These cells were positive for CD3, CD4, CD5, CD30 (partially), CD56, and αβ-type T-cell receptor (TCR), in which PCR demonstrated monoclonal TCR-γ gene rearrangement. An additional diagnosis of PTCL, not otherwise specified was made. We treated her with an R-CHOP regimen, resulting in the marked reduction of B-CLL cells but progressive PTCL. Brentuximab vedotin had a transient effect, but the patient died of sepsis due to residual PTCL and pancytopenia. This case is highly informative for tumor biology of B-CLL in terms of emergence of both chromosomal abnormalities and PTCL with progression of this leukemia.