Chilling induces shape changes in platelets from disks to spheres with abundant filopodia. Such changes were time-dependent and correlated well with the phosphorylation of 20-kDa myosin light chain (LC20). Both the shape changes and the phosphorylation were reversible. After the platelets had been chilled, myosin became incorporated into the Triton X-insoluble fraction. When the chilled platelets were immunocytochemically stained, anti-myosin antibody was localized with filamentous structures inside the filopodia. These results suggest that LC20 phosphorylation and subsequent interactions with actin filaments play a crucial role in the cold-induced changes in platelet shape and in the formation of filopodia.