社会学評論
Online ISSN : 1884-2755
Print ISSN : 0021-5414
ISSN-L : 0021-5414
ソヴェトの社会的移動
渡辺 良智
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ジャーナル フリー

1972 年 22 巻 3 号 p. 50-62

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“SOCIAL MOBILITY”, written by М. Н. Рукевнч (M.H. RUTKEBICH) et al. is the first comprehensive achievement of Soviet sociology in the field of social mobility in the U.S.S.R..
The interesting data are surveyed in Ural heavy industrial area, especially in Sverdorovsk city. And its main contents are : The Predominant Tendency in Social Mobility, Social Background of the Specialist (Intelligentsia), Promotion to the Administrative Works, and The Future Plan of The Secondary School Student.
The authors are insisting on exploring the function of social mobility to bring all classes in the U.S.S.R. toward equal conditions. But the situations are not so favorable as they expect. First of all, the increase of social mobility does not directly lead to the classless society. On the contrary, in modern industrial society technology makes new differentiation of roles.
And reality in the Soviet society are as follows : some decades after the Russian Revolution industrialization and urbanization facilitated social mobility, but nowadays the tendency to consolidate the class position come to appear, for example, intelligentsia under forty years old come eminently fromilies of their own. And in social mobility the factor of education is very important, but preparations for the entrance examination of university are troublesome for offspring of the workers and the collective peasantry and they prefer to enter the Secondary Specialized School (Tekhnicum). In promotion toward the administrative work the specialists are most favorable in selection. And in rating occupational prestige, the works of intelligentsia (mental work) are by far highly estimated than those of physical works, and the difference of rating between the top and the lowest is larger than in the U.S.A. and in Japan.
Considering these aspects, the writer cannot be optimistic toward what is happening in the Soviet society.
But many interesting data, for example, changes of social positions through three generations, age-structure of the village-deserters, characteristic of some of the administrative workers and their motives toward the promotion, are useful for sociologists not specialized in Soviet sociology.

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© 日本社会学会
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