2001 年 22 巻 10 号 p. 687-693
About 330 years have passed since Newton found the spectroscopy. During this period, Roentgen and Thomson discovered X-ray and electrons, respectively. Then, Auger determined Auger process using a cloud chamber invented by Wilson, and Siegbahn established the basis of X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy using his specially designed electron analyzer. Now we enjoyed modern electron spectroscopy instruments established by the efforts of many scientists and engineers, and now the electron spectroscopy is an indispensable technique to characterize the surfaces of materials in laboratories as well as in industries. This paper may guide us to the future development of this technique by tracing the development of electron spectroscopy.