2019 Volume 44 Issue 6 Pages 373-391
Non-steroidal anti-inflammatory drugs (NSAIDs) are among the most widely used therapeutic class in clinical medicine. These are sub-divided based on their selectivity for inhibition of cyclooxygenase (COX) isoforms (COX-1 and COX-2) into: (1) non-selective (ns-NSAIDs), and (2) selective NSAIDs (s-NSAIDs) with preferential inhibition of COX-2 isozyme. The safety and pathophysiology of NSAIDs on the renal and cardiovascular systems have continued to evolve over the years following short- and long-term treatment in both preclinical models and humans. This review summarizes major learnings on cardiac and renal complications associated with pharmaceutical inhibition of COX-1 and COX-2 with focus on preclinical to clinical translatability of cardio-renal data.