2017 Volume 70 Issue 12 Pages 787-791
A 41-month-old Holstein cow with the chief complaint of anorexia exhibited edema of the lower jaw and dewlap, jugular venous engorgement and diarrhea, therefore traumatic pericarditis was suspected. Echocardiography revealed an increased amount of pericardial fluid without fibrin deposition and compression of the heart. Pericardial fluid was blood-like, and cytology findings ruled out neoplastic disease. Blood and blood-chemical examination did not suggest strong inflammation. After removing 5 l of pericardial fluid using pericardiocentesis, the general condition of the patient rapidly improved with a decrease of edema, ascites, pleural effusion and pericardial fluid. As a ventricular septal defect was found by auscultation and echocardiography, the cow was euthanized on Day 29. No lesions related to blood-like pericardial effusion were found by necropsy, thus the diagnosis was idiopathic hemorrhagic pericardial effusion. Pericardiocentesis is thought to be a treatment option for idiopathic hemorrhagic pericardial effusion in cattle.