Card15/Nod2 has been suggested to be an intracellular pathogen-associated molecular pattern (PAMPs) recognition molecule, which contains a leucine-rich repeat region similar to the Toll-like receptors (TLRs). Card15/Nod2 gene variants play an important role in the susceptibility to Crohn's disease. In this study, we examined the kinetics of Card15/Nod2 expression in intestinal tissue during inflammation in the 2, 4, 6-trinitrobenzenesulfonic acid (TNBS)-treated rat experimental colitis model. At 2 and 4 days after TNBS administration, the mononuclear cells remarkably infiltrated the mucosal layer and tunica muscularis, which was followed by a gradual decrease to resting levels at 14 days after TNBS administration. Card15/Nod2 mRNA expression increased and peaked at 4 days after the TNBS administration, followed by a gradual decrease in accordance with the amelioration of the inflammatory response. Expressions of Tlr2, Tlr4 and Myd88 were also upregulated in the inflamed colonic region, and in an in situ hybridization study, a positive signal for Card15/Nod2 was observed in the crypt of the epithelial cell layer and in the infiltrated cells of the submucosal and myenteric regions. These results suggest that in addition to the TLR recognition systems, Card15/Nod2 may contribute to the inflammatory process not only in the epithelial and submucosal layers but also in the tunica muscularis.
2006 by the Japanese Society of Veterinary Science