Fluconazole (Fcz) is successfully used in human organ transplant patients as an antifungal therapy. However, Fcz can increase the cyclosporine (CsA) trough level and lead to CsA nephrotoxicity. In canine renal transplantation, CsA has been used as a major immunosuppressant, and it is important to control its trough level. However, the interaction of Fcz with CsA has not yet been reported in dogs. In this study, the effect of Fcz treatment on the pharmacokinetics of CsA in four healthy beagles was investigated using a four-period crossover design. The treatments included CsA alone (A), CsA + multiple-dose Fcz 50 mg (B), CsA + multiple-dose Fcz 25 mg (C) and CsA + single-dose Fcz 50 mg (D). Blood CsA concentrations were measured at 0.5, 1, 2, 4, 6, 8, 10, 12 and 24 hr after CsA administration. The AUC0-12 and Cmax values for treatment B were significantly higher than those for the other treatments. In particular, the AUC0-12 of treatment B was about two times higher than that of treatment A. Fcz administration did not significantly prolong the half-life or mean residence time of CsA. The results of our study show that administration of multiple therapeutic doses of Fcz can significantly increase the CsA blood concentration, which might partially depend upon the Fcz blood concentration. When Fcz is used in CsA-based canine renal transplantation, it may be necessary to adjust the CsA trough level by decreasing the dose.
2008 by the Japanese Society of Veterinary Science