2017 Volume 79 Issue 1 Pages 1-5
Recently, dysfunction of antigen-specific T cells is well documented as T-cell exhaustion and has been defined by the loss of effector functions during chronic infections and cancer in human. The exhausted T cells are characterized phenotypically by the surface expression of immunoinhibitory receptors, such as programmed death 1 (PD-1), lymphocyte activation gene 3 (LAG-3), T-cell immunoglobulin and mucin domain-containing protein 3 (Tim-3) and cytotoxic T-lymphocyte antigen 4 (CTLA-4). However, there is still a fundamental lack of knowledge about the immunoinhibitory receptors in the fields of veterinary medicine. In particular, very little is known about mechanism of T cell dysfunction in chronic infection in cattle. Recent our studies have revealed that immunoinhibitory molecules including PD-1/ programmed death-ligand 1 (PD-L1) play critical roles in immune exhaustion and disease progression in case of bovine leukemia virus (BLV) infection, Johne’s disease and bovine anaplasmosis. This review includes some recent data from us.