2017 Volume 79 Issue 4 Pages 765-773
The efficacy of a commercial attenuated live type 2 porcine reproductive and respiratory syndrome (PRRS) vaccine was tested under experimental infection with a highly virulent Vietnamese virus isolated from a diseased pig affected with highly pathogenic PRRS (HP-PRRS) using specific pathogen-free (SPF) pigs. Twenty-five 4-week-old SPF pigs were divided into three groups as follows: pigs vaccinated with a single dose of the vaccine (Group 1, n=10), unvaccinated pigs (Group 2, n=10) and unvaccinated and non-infectious control pigs (Group 3, n=5). Four weeks later, Groups 1 and 2 were challenged with a 1 ml inoculum containing 1 × 105.5 50% tissue culture infectious dose (TCID50)/ml of a Vietnamese HP-PRRS virus isolated in 2010 via the intranasal route. Animals were monitored during the subsequent two-week period post-challenge and necropsied for virological and pathological assays. Results showed a significant reduction in viral replication and shedding in vaccinated pigs compared to unvaccinated pigs. The non-vaccinated pigs showed severe pyrogenic and respiratory illness with marked systematic lesions including interstitial pneumonia and thymic atrophy. In contrast, vaccinated pigs recovered quickly from fever with only mild pathological manifestations. Therefore, although viral shedding was still noted, immunization with the live PRRS vaccine did indeed reduce viral replication and disease severity, suggesting its utility in minimizing outbreaks of HP-PRRS.