2022 Volume 84 Issue 5 Pages 653-659
To strengthen farm biosecurity, wildlife behaviors around livestock environments require significant attention. Livestock feed is considered one of essential factors that attract wildlife to the livestock environment. We experimentally studied wildlife response to cattle, swine, and chicken concentrated feeds in the forests surrounding poultry farms. In 14 feeding sites, four feed conditions were established: without feed (control); cattle feed; chicken feed; and swine feed. Wildlife behaviors at each feed point were monitored using infrared cameras. In 3,175 videos, 10 mammals were photographed on 10 or more occasions. Wildlife more frequently appeared at the points with feed than without feed. In addition, the number of videos that captured foraging or interest behaviors was largest for swine feed, followed by chicken feed, then cattle feed. There was a large difference among wildlife in their response to livestock feeds, although each species did not have a strong preference for a specific feed. Livestock feeds invite frequent visits by high and moderate response groups, especially omnivores and carnivores with omnivorous tendencies. Therefore, to protect against such wildlife intrusion, leftover feed and feed storage must be properly managed. This study also suggests that livestock feeds may not cause intrusions by rare response group species; hence, if their intrusions occur, they may be due to factors other than livestock feed. The study situation can partly reflect actual feed-stealing situations. The results will contribute to consider the properly management to protect livestock environments from wildlife intrusions.