Journal of the Yamashina Institute for Ornithology
Online ISSN : 1883-3659
Print ISSN : 0044-0183
Avian vs mammalian societies, as viewed from socio-ecological analysis
Nagahisa Kuroda
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Volume 13 (1981) Issue 1 Pages 1-59

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This paper was first planned in 1971 and was written in 1975 (marking the author's age of 60th) to compare avian and mammalian "societies", based on socio-ecological and -ethological analyses, independently of Wilson's "Sociobiology" (1975); with the following contents:
I "Animal sociology"
1. Animal societies: its two viewpoints
a. Phenotypic sociology b. Functional sociology
2. Animal societies: its functional analysis
3. Animal societies: its evolution
a. Origin and functional evolution b. Phenotypic evolution
II. Avian and mammalian societies
1. Comparative characteristics
2. Evolutionary retrospects
3. Distributional property
4. Life diversification
a. Mammalian b. Avian
5. Behavioral diversification
a. Brain structure b. Brain function c. Instincts and intelligence b. Instinctive grades: 1) Physiological (individual or maintenance) behaviors 2) Social behaviors (a) Instinctive reflex beh. (= IRM) (Primary inst. beh.) b) Instinctive responding beh. (Secondary inst. beh.) c) Mental instinct-controlling beh. (Tertiary inst. beh.) d) Psychological reflex beh. (Spiritual shock beh.) e) Mental instinct-suppressing beh. (reductive inst. beh.) f) Learning g) Imprinting h) Tool-using i) Coopreative behavior
III. Social development
1. Flock-vs family-base life
2. Dominance and leadership
3. Individual and population (groups)
4. Group-making property
a. Avian group life: 1) Family group 2) Areal group 3) Group territory 4) Colony
b. Mammalian group life c. Human group life
5. On group selection
IV. Postscript
The avian and mammalian societies, despite common general physiology, have evolved toward basically "aerial-diurnal" and "terrestrial-nocturnal" contrasted lives.
The avian society is aberrantly specialized and could be neglected from the quadrupedal evolutionary line leading to mammalian society, but the avian flock-based, monogamous social structure with sexual cooperative division of work and the mammalian mother-filial family-based, polygynous, despotic and graded social structure, are compounded in the human society, which, beside this biological social base, is put under artificial restraint and constraint of laws, religions, ideologies of nations (or races). With this contradictions, the world human societies inevitably contiune their cooperative efforts, but with endless competition.

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