1966 Volume 4 Issue 5 Pages 397-402
1. A total of 5, 789 Tree Sparrow Passer montanus were banded in Japan during 1924-'43 with 157 recoveries (2.71%), of which 121 (77.07%) were those banded during August and October at Kuzutsuka, Niigata, a heavy snow area.
2. In total, 60.5% of recoveries were made within 5km and 80% within 23km from banded places, and out of 110 recoveries within 23km, 91.8% were within 5km. These results represent resident populations.
3. There were no recoveries between 24-100km. But, 45 (29%) recoveries were made again between 100-600km from S-SW directions (except one from E and one N). These data represent emigrating populations and since the birds were banded during August and October and were recovered in winter months, their movements suggest the wintering dispersal. However, whether this is a mere dispersal or a true migration is not clear, and it is suggested that the emigrating population would be young groups of the year.
4. Kuzutsuka population consisted of 67.23% resident (within 23km, of which 90% within 5km) and 39% emigrating populations. The latter dispersed distances of 105-406km, while out of only 23 recoveries from birds banded at Nagaura, only 4km from Kuzutsuka, 6 recoveries were made from Okayama at 600km of distance. These 6 birds had been banded in the same period (October to November 2, 1940) and all were recovered after 4 months at Okayama (only one other bird came from Kuzutsuka). This is an evidence of group movement of a local population.
5. The periods from banding to recoveries were: within 6 months 77.37% (101), 12 months 13.14% (18), 13-17 months 6.57% (9) and 19-35 months 2.9% (one each for 19, 24, 26, and 35 months) (total 137 cases).