Within Japan, the Japanese Quail Coturnix japonica is bird species familiar to many people. It was first designated as a game species in 1918, and has been captive-bred and released into the wild since the early 1970s. An examination of the annual numbers of quails hunted, based on Wildlife Statistics data and other literature sources, indicates that the population level of Japanese Quail started to decline in the 1930s, and has subsequently shown a dramatic decrease. Japanese Quail is thought to have no harmful effects on agriculture, and has retained its status as a game species solely owing to its value as a hunting target. In 1998 the Japanese Quail was listed as DD (Data Deficient) on the Japanese Red List, and its designation as a game species should therefore be reconsidered as soon as possible. For the Japanese Quail population to recover from its from endangered status a combination of stricter hunting regulations and the active restoration of suitable habitat is urgently required.