1995 Volume 21 Issue 6 Pages 1047-1053
The sol-gel process for tin tetra-n-butoxide in butanol was analyzed by viscosity measurements. Precipitation of tin oxide-containing ultrafine particles was observed without a viscosity increase in the absence of diethylene glycol. On the other hand, the viscosity increased by the addition of diethylene glycol without any precipitation. The induction period and the slope of the rise in the viscosity after the induction period were independent of the diethylene glycol content, but they depended remarkably upon the water content. Monte Carlo simulation was carried out on the basis of the reaction model consisting of forward and reverse reactions of hydrolysis and polycondensation of tin tetra-n-butoxide with the molecular size effect. The simulation results were consistent with data on the viscosity measurements.