2011 Volume 85 Issue 3 Pages 268-271
Subjects with primary human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) infection often have acute retroviral syndrome. Some develop rhabdomyolysis, which can lead to acute renal failure. A 21-year-old man admitted for consciousness disturbance was initially considered to have aseptic meningitis associated with primary HIV infection. On hospitalization day 3, he developed severe rhabdomyolysis with elevated serum creatine kinase (CK) of 218,100 IU/L with serum creatinine normal at 0.9mg/dL. Following massive extracellular fluid infusion and urinary alkalinization, serum CK decreased smoothly, without renal failure. Severe rhabdomyolysis was concomitant with systemic inflammatory response syndrome (SIRS) only on admission day. Acute renal failure in those with rhabdomyolysis may be influenced by renal possibly due to SIRS and tubular damage from reactive oxygen species, rather than by tubular obstruction by myoglobin casts, although this depends on the extent of myolysis. Acute renal failure is prevented in those with primary HIV infection developing rhabdomyolysis, based on renal blood flow control, if condition causing SIRS do not become a complication.